Febone 1960.net Blog

To Know There Is To Go There

You are currently browsing the archives for February, 2010.

Maurice Cox Continuing The Pepsi Challenge Initiated By Edward F. Boyd


Those same words probably echoed in the mind of Edward F. Boyd who is said to be the Jackie Robinson of Corporate America. Pepsi Cola hired Edward Francis Boyd in 1947 — the same year the Brooklyn Dodgers introduced Jackie Robinson as the firest African American to play in the major leagues.

Avoiding Aunt Jemima images, he commissioned ads showing African-Americans as fun-loving middle-class consumers living the American dream. In one ad the small boy shown shopping for Pepsi with his mother was Ron Brown, who would become secretary of commerce.

Mr. Boyd hired some of the first black advertising models, flooded black papers with ads and added new sophistication and prominence to the ads already being published in magazines like Ebony. He created the first point-of-purchase displays aimed at minorities.

His program also included having celebrities like Duke Ellington and Lionel Hampton give “shout-outs” for Pepsi from the stage.

Mr. Boyd’s most daring initiative echoed the hiring of Robinson by the Dodgers’ president, Branch Rickey . He assembled a squad of black salesmen to visit bottlers, grocery stores, shoeshine emporia, Elks Clubs, conventions and teachers’ and doctors’ conferences. They were even invited to speak from church pulpits, discreetly not mentioning a certain effervescent liquid.

Blacks were then being lynched in the South, and even in the North, many hotels did not welcome the Pepsi salesmen. Mr. Boyd had them use Pullman sleeping cars on trains so they could eat in their compartments, not segregated dining areas. Mr. Boyd often traveled with his lieutenants, who were better qualified but paid less than their white counterparts at Pepsi. One proud salesman, a Harvard graduate, resigned after being sent to the back of a bus.

His team bolstered Pepsi sales in every area they hit with a marketing blitz. After they visited Chicago, Pepsi overtook Coke there for the first time.

As the son of a barber, Boyd used his singing and dancing skills once used in minor movie roles to market Pepsi to African American market long before most companies came to see the potential of the black consumer.

Edward Boyd who died in 2007 at the age of 92 put doors where only walls had previously existed. Mr. Boyd blazed a trail for many black executives at Pepsi including Maurice Cox.

Maurice Cox is Vice President, Corporate Development & Diversity at Pepsi-Cola Company, a division of PepsiCo, Inc., and is responsible for providing strategic guidance on a range of workplace and marketplace diversity issues that impact the company’s employees and its market performance.

Prior to assuming this position, Cox was Director of Government Affairs for Pepsi-Cola, serving as the company’s chief lobbyist and public policy strategist for all federal, state and local government affairs. He joined the company in 1981 as Manager of Communications.

Before joining Pepsi-Cola, the Dover, NC native was the Assistant Director of Communications for Associated Builders & Contractors, Inc., a Washington, D.C.-based business trade lobbying group and a former editor of Builder & Contractor Magazine. Mr. Cox began his career as a journalist for the Greensboro (NC) Daily News & Record, after earning an economics degree from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Today, PepsiCo, is a world leader in convenient foods and beverages. Mr. Cox has developed and led many innovative initiatives that integrate diversity performance across business functions thus establishing PepsiCo as a leader in the area of diversity and inclusion.

One such initiative is the Black Enterprise/Pepsi Golf and Tennis Challenge a labor day weekend evnt established 16 years ago by Earl Graves with the help of Pepsico, the parent company of Pepsi Cola.

Febone1960.net caught up with Mr. Cox at the 2009 event where he shared his philosophy in life.

• If you are going to do something, be the best that you can possibly be.
• Develop a hip pocket skill, a skill that you will be known for.
• Don’t hesitate to ask for help from anyone who can help whether they be young or old.
• Find a since of balance in your life. Working 24/7 is not the sole path to success.
• Do give back to the community. If you don’t reach back to help someone like yourself, then you only live a half life

Do the very best you can, so others may read and learn about you one day.

Also remember that Black History is American History.

What’s Your Take On The Matter? Register and/or sign in and sound off!

You can also twitter the febone_blog

    follow me on Twitter

    Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 1:46 pm. Add a comment

    The Aftermath Of The Brown Decision: South Carolina


    Segregation of Public Schools had now been found unconstitutional thanks to Charles Hamilton Houston, Thurgood Marshall and his expert team of NAACP lawyer.

    Coming in the form of the United States Supreme Court decision, the victory was just victory in paper only, and it did not come without severe consequences to the Plaintiffs.

    Levi Pearson was denied credit and lost his livelihood in the timber business as the demand for timber grown on his land evaporated.

    WWII naval veteran Harry Briggs was a service station attendant and his wife, Liza Briggs worked as a maid. Both Briggs were fired from from their jobs.

    Harry Briggs had to move to Florida to find work to support his family. He ramained there for about ten years only seeing his family on some weekends.

    U.S. District Judge J. Waites Waringr do eight generation Charlestonian, made some of the states earliest and toughest desegregation decision. In 1947 and 1948, Waring struck down the all white political primaries.

    Facing retaliation for these rulings and his descent in Brigss, Waring left the state moving to New York.

    Also moving to New York after his life was threatened, and losing his job as a school principal was Reverend Delaine.

    I’m Gale Gandy from Society Hill, S.C. Join us tomorrow as we continue to explore the aftermath of the Brown decision.

    For Spanish and hearing impaired versions, please go to the Febone1960.net Black History Month Calendar


    What’s Your Take On The Matter? Register and/or sign in and sound off!

    You can also twitter the febone_blog

      follow me on Twitter

      Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 12:12 am. Add a comment

      The Sound of Philadelphia Suffers A 2 Alarm Fire

      About 40 percent of the memorabilia adorning the walls of the legendary Philadelphia International Records (PIR) was unaccounted for yesterday, a company executive revealed the day after a fire damaged the building housing the iconic Gamble & Huff-founded Philadelphia International Records studios and offices at Broad and Spruce.

      Fire officials deems the Sunday’s blaze “suspicious” and remains silent about the unidentified man whom firefighters rescued from the burning building. All that is known at this time is the unidentified man who hospitalized and released after questioning had no reason for being inside of PIR.

      Chuck Gamble, executive vice president of Philadelphia International Records, said officials have not told him the man’s name, making it difficult to determine if he had any connection to the Center City building where legends like Michael Jackson, Patti LaBelle, Teddy Pendergrass, Phyllis Hyman and the O’Jays had recorded.

      Gamble, who entered the building at Broad and Spruce streets yesterday for the first time since the fire, said that the historic Gamble-Huff recording studio was not damaged but that a number of gold albums and photographs were unaccounted for.

      “It was dark in there so at this point, we just don’t know where they are,” he said. “They could have been knocked off the walls or were melted.”

      Chuck Gamble who is also the nephew of Kenny Gamble, PIR’s co-founder told KYW1060, that PIR’s thousands of master tapes are stored in a “secret underground vault” in a different location,so the damage was certainly minimized.

      Firefighters responded to the building about 7:30 a.m. Sunday and battled the two-alarm blaze for just under an hour.

      The fire started in a third-floor room that stored merchandise. The bulk of the fire was contained on the third floor, where the recording studios and executive offices are also housed.

      When firefighters arrived, the unidentified man was hanging out of a third-floor window and was rescued by ladder, Fire Commissioner Lloyd Ayers said.

      The man was treated at an area hospital, then questioned by police and the fire marshal. He was released yesterday, though the investigation continues, Ayers said.

      Gamble said it was his understanding that the man was “uncooperative” during interviews. Gamble said no one should have been in the building at that time.

      We don’t know who the guy was,” Chuck Gamble said. “He doesn’t have anything to do with us.”

      The younger Gamble went on to say said the record company normally is secured like “Fort Knox,” and the building’s surveillance cameras should aid investigators in determining what happened.

      “To get into that building is pretty difficult,” Gamble said. “We don’t know why, and we’re trying to figure out how he got in.”

      Kenny Gamble Holds Hard Hat As He Surveys The Damage

      Kenny Gamble Holds Hard Hat As He Surveys The Damage

      The building is owned by Kenny Gamble, Huff, and their partner, Thom Bell.

      The offices belonging to Gamble’s uncle, Kenny Gamble, and his producing partner, Leon Huff – where other singing notables such as Diana Ross and the Temptations have visited – were “torn apart” and hard to see, Chuck Gamble said.

      The producing duo was in New York City at the time of the fire.

      Contractors covered the building’s roof yesterday in advance of the rain expected today.

      Gamble said that the building would be fixed and that the company would continue to operate while the building is shuttered.

      “While we still do recording,” he said, “most of what we do now is licensing and marketing, and that can be handled online and digitally.

      What’s Your Take On The Matter? Register and/or sign in and sound off!

      You can also twitter the febone_blog

        follow me on Twitter

        Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 5:23 am. Add a comment

        Blues For Jim Crow: Plessy Returns To The Court Of The Land


        Thurgood Marshall and his expert team of NAACP lawyers have now arrived before the Supreme Court to argue the most important case of them all: Brown v. Board of Education.

        The high court had combined all five of the NAACP sponsored cases filed by Marshall and his team for a hearing. The last time the high court had combined the five cases pertaining to the civil rights of African Americans, was in 1883. The decision rendered in that case invalidated the civil rights act of 1875 wiping out all the rights vested by Congress to African Americans during Reconstruction. That decision lead to Plessy. That same decision outraged African Methodist Episcopal Bishop Henry McNeil Turner.

        In an article appearing in the New York paper the New York Voice and the AME publication the Christian Recorder, asked the African American community to pray for a new Court.

        Marshall would now argue this important case before a new Court: The Vinson Court. Before the case would be decided, he would re-argue the case before a different Court. He would reargue the case before the Warren Court.

        Associate Justice Hugo Black would sit on both Courts. Franklin Roosevelt nominated Hugo Black to the Court. Before sitting on the high court, he had been a successful trial lawyer turned politician in Alabama. During his days in Alabama, and before being elected to the U.S. Senate, Black was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Black’s membership had been exposed by a reporter, after his confirmation to the high court. It was questionable as to whether he would be willing to protect the rights of all including that of African Americans. Hugo Black commented once on the subject by way of a radio address.

        Now the case of Brown v. Board of Education was before Hugo Black and the Unites states Supreme Court. A case of whether segregation is a violation of African American Rights to equal protection under the law as it is prescribed by he 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

        Thurgood Marshall and Robert Carter were up against John W. Davis, a former Presidential candidate who was making the last of his 140 appearances before the Supreme Court. Davis’ argument: separate was not necessarily unequal. He went on to say that blacks should be happy with the way things were. He also addressed states rights asking the question didn’t state have the right to educate their children as they saw fit? All in all Davis felt that he had won the case because he had Plessy on his side and Plessy was precedent. He had not given any consideration to the Gaines, Murray Sweat Supuel and McLaurin cases. Cases that Marshall and Houston had argued and won before the high court: cases that had chipped away at Plessy.

        In a conference held after the hearing, the Justices never got to a vote. In a private memo associate Justice William Douglas that there were four votes to strike down segregation. The other five associate justices were not ready to do so. Counted amongst the four votes was associate justice Hugo Black. All of the justices felt that segregation was morally wrong. The conference raised some interesting questions: questions that prompted the Justices to schedule another hearing. Before the hearing could be scheduled, Chief Justice Fred Vinson died of a heart attack. President Dwight Eisenhower nominated former California Governor Earl Warren to replace Vincent as the Chief Justice.

        After the rehearing, the chief Justice acting as a politician talked individually to each associate justice. On May 17, 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren read the following decision of a unanimous court: We come to the question presented that segregation of children in public schools solely on the bases of race even though the physical facilities, and other tangible factors may be equal deprive the children of the minority group equal educational opportunities. We believe that it does. We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the action has been brought are by reasons of the segregation complained of deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the fourteenth amendment. The Supreme Court had overturned Plessy.

        Houston plans of chipping away at Plessy had made this victory possible. It was unfortunate that he did not live to share in this victory.

        I’m Penny Marshall.
        For Spanish and hearing impaired versions, please go to the Febone1960.net Black History Month Calendar


        What’s Your Take On The Matter? Register and/or sign in and sound off!

        You can also twitter the febone_blog

          follow me on Twitter

          Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 2:38 am. Add a comment


          The Spotswood Bolling case, was not the only litigation pertaining to the education of African American children within our Nation’s Capitol.

          In 1946, Louise Miller requested that her five year old deaf son, Kenneth be allowed to attend the Kendall School
          In the pre civil War year of 1856, Kendall was known as the Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf, Dumb, and blind.

          The school was established Amos Kendall in the District of Columbia and incorporated by acts of Congress on Feb 16, 1857.

          Kendall who served as the U.S. Postmaster under Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren secured the passage of another act which granted an allowance of $150.00 for the maintenance and tuition of each child received by the institution from the District of Columbia.

          Edward Miner Gallaudet, the son of a deaf mother was given the position of Superintendent of the institution. Gallaudet’s father, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet co-founded the first American School for the deaf in Hartford, Conn in 1817.

          The school admitted and educated black deaf student until the rendering of the Plessy decision in 1896. Although the black and white students had separate sleeping and eating accommodations, the students were taught together in the classroom. This drew complaints from the white parents. The parental objections deteriorated the cordial relationship between the students.

          The harassment of the black students by white students quickly eroded the ability of the co-existence of the races at Kendall.

          Compelled to take action, Gallaudet approached Senator Francis Cockrell, from Missouri. The senator offered assistance by obtaining congressional legislation on March 3, 1905 that provided for the transfer of the black students to the Maryland School for Colored Deaf Mutes in Overlea, Maryland. The school for the colored was located within the physical structure of the Maryland School for the Blind.

          The legislation which authorized the education of the deaf black District of Columbia pupils at the Maryland facility also provided $5,000.00 or such thereof that may be necessary to cover the maintenance and tuition of the black students from the District of Columbia.

          In a nutshell, the legislation had removed the black deaf and blind students from an integrated school within the borders of our Nation’s Capitol without providing equal accommodations therein.

          Mrs. Miller’s request to have Kenneth admitted to Kendall was denied. She then asked that the young lad be educated at the expense of the District of Columbia at the prestigious Pennsylvania School for the deaf in Mount Airy Pennsylvania.

          Founded in 1820, the Pennsylvania facility was an integrated institution that accepted out of state students.
          The congressional appropriation act of 3/3/1905 allowed for the support of the black District of Columbia students at facilities other than the Maryland school providing that the student possessed some special needs that could not be met at the Maryland facility. Kenneth was found to have no special needs.

          The admission committee reviewing admissions for the Maryland facility thought that Miller’s son was too young for acceptance. Additionally, there were no vacancies at the facility which also had a long waiting list.

          Kenneth could not be educated at the Kendall School because of his race. Nor was he able to start his education because of his age and the lack of space. Further his education at the Pennsylvania facility would not be sponsored by the District of Columbia because he did not possess any special needs.

          Louise Miller was employed as a statistical clerk at the Census Department and her husband, Luther Miller was a District of Columbia police officer. Together they were determined to provide the best educational opportunities for all their children.

          The Millers who had several deaf children believed that an early educational start was a necessary for deaf children to excel. Therefore, from 1947 to 1948 the Miller’s engaged the services of a private tutor at $5.00 per hour to provide Kenneth with the educational foundation they believed was needed.

          In 1949 at the age of 8, The Millers sent Kenneth to the Pennsylvania facility at their own expense.
          The institution was a residential facility; therefore, Kenneth was required to board there.

          Before enrolling their son at the Pennsylvania facility, the Millers visited the Overlea facility and found that the condition of the school to be unacceptable. I was shocked at the rundown physical plant and the poor system and I could not leave him there.

          More importantly, at the Maryland facility children could only communicated by sign language or by writing. Students at the Pennsylvania School of the Deaf were instructed using the oral method, which was considered a more advanced method of instruction during that period.

          The plight of the deaf students living inside the District of Columbia was not being addressed by was by Bishop and the Consolidated Group.

          Instead, their cause was taken up by Dr. Paul Phillips Cooke an educator. Dr. Paul Cooke, who was a member of the Greater Washington Area Council of the American Veterans Committee, would later be named President of the University of The District of Columbia.

          Cooke and along with Florence Nierman, the chair of the Washington chapter of the American Veterans Committee were determined to have the black deaf children educated at Kendall.

          If Thurgood Marshall was trying to cross the river of segregation, then the deaf black children residing within the District of Columbia had two rivers to cross. For they had been relegated to the status of a slave who were not permitted to be educated at all. As a result of the Plessy decision, the black deaf students within the District of Columbia found themselves wading in the waters of no education within our nation’s Capitol.

          Cooke and Nierman backed by the American Veterans Committee decided to trouble the waters at Kendall by assembling the parents of the black deaf children residing inside the District of Columbia and engaging the services of the black law firm of Cobb, Howard, and Hayes.

          They initiated their assault on the discriminatory policy through a letter writing campaign to the Board of Education. The parents wrote such letters spelling out their concerns and requesting for a change in the policy of sending their children to another state for education.

          The Millers had no reservations of joining the group; for they thought the $1650.00 they paid for Kenneth’s tuition along with the absence of their son and the lack of parental guidance to be an unfair and unnecessary burden on their family.

          By December 1951, the American Veterans Committee had spent more than eight months corresponding with the agencies responsible for the oversight of the education of the District of Columbia’s deaf children. They prepared, wrote, and delivered a six page statement to the Board of Education on December 26, 1951. The statement, with a cover letter from Cooke, outlined the unequal situation of the students. It set forth the current legislation regarding the education of the deaf students. Additionally, it supported the requests of the Black parents to have their deaf children admitted to the Kendall School in the District of Columbia. This statement marked the end of the AVC’s first phase of a two-prong strategy to challenge educational policy.

          On February 2, 1952, the law firm of Cobb, Hayes, and Howard filed Miller. v. Board of Education of District of Columbia in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Louise B. Miller and her son Kenneth, who was now eleven and on whose behalf she had begun her advocacy in 1946, were the lead plaintiffs. They were joined by Marvin Brown and his daughter, Irene Brown; Mattie Hood and her son Robert Jones; Grace Jones and her son William Matthews; Minnie Mayfield and her son Donald Mayfield; and Luke Richardson and his daughter Doris Richardson. John D. Fauntleroy and Phineas Indritz, respectively, argued the case for the plaintiffs and prepared the plaintiffs’ briefs.

          Unlike the outcome of the Consolidated Group’s class action suit, Judge David A. Pine rendered a decision finding for the plaintiffs in the nonjury hearing.

          The judge’s decision was based on the ruling in the 1938 Missouri v. Canada, case.

          The Gaines case argued by Thurgood Marshall and Charles Hamilton Houston essentially dealt with a practice, whereby the state of Missouri paid the tuition of African Americans at out-of-state schools rather than admit them to the University of Missouri. In doing so, the state avoided the expense of having to construct separate-but-equal facilities. The Gaines court ruled for the plaintiff and held that Missouri provided no equal access to higher education for both races within its borders. The Supreme Court Justices found Missouri’s policy to be state-practiced racial discrimination, and therefore in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment.

          Judge Pine, in basing his ruling on that precedent, stated, “as I see it, the practice involved in this case offends against the Gaines decision; and therefore, to maintain the legality of the separation of the races, it is the duty of the District of Columbia to provide equal educational facilities within the District of Columbia for the deaf children of both races, if it provides for any therein”.

          In the fall of 1952, Black students were again attending Kendall School.

          This victory proved bittersweet for the plaintiffs. Plessy mandated the Kendall School to set up a separate area for Black students. The result was Kendall’s creation of Division I for the white students and Division II for the Black students.

          A positive and significant change brought about by Miller v. D.C. Board of Education was the hiring of Black teachers. This became a necessity after the hostile response of the white teaching staff to the return of the Black students.

          The first black teacher to be hired was Ruby Fry Hughes.

          The deaf students were now wading in the waters of segregation along with the Consolidated Group determined to surface the shores of desegregation.

          The deaf students were now wading in the waters of segregation along with the Consolidated Group determined to surface the shores of desegregation.

          Thank you for joining us today in exploration of the black deaf community’s participation in the school desegregation fight initiated Louise Miller and supported by Dr. Cooke, Mrs. Florence Nierman, the American Veterans Committee, Attorney James Cobb and the Law Firm of Cobb Howard and Hayes, and all the other African American families who joined the lawsuit argued by John D. Fauntleroy, and Phineas Indritz.

          I’m Sandra Jowers Barber. Please join us tomorrow here on Febone1960.net Black History Calendar as we continue to explore the fight for school desegregation.

          For Spanish and hearing impaired versions, please go to the Febone1960.net Black History Month Calendar


          What’s Your Take On The Matter? Register and/or sign in and sound off!

          You can also twitter the febone_blog

            follow me on Twitter

            Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 4:13 am. Add a comment