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A Showdown With Jim Crow Part II: Clarendon South Carolina

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On March 16, 1948 local Attorney Harold Bouleware together with Thurgood Marshall filed in U.S. District Court the case of Levi Pearson v. Board of Education. The case was dismissed on a technicality. The Court ruled that Mr. Pearson had no legal standing because he paid taxes in District 5 and his children attended school in District 21 and 26. The dismissal did discouraged a determined Reverend Delaine and by 1949 he had obtained enough signatures to file a second case.

The national office of the NAACP agreed to sponsor their case. Now the Clarendon county African American community was not just seeking buses, but educational equality. In May of 1950, with the help of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, the case of Briggs v. Elliott was filed. Two months later, the plaintiffs’ attorney moved from simply pursuing equalization of facilities and obtaining buses to attacking segregation.

The lead plaintiff in that case was Harry Briggs a WWII naval veteran. Harry had volunteered and risked his life abroad to fight for the double victory. Harry fighting side by side with the other U.S. forces defeated the enemy without, but the enemy within was still pounding him economically and emotionally. He must now continue his battle against Jim Crow in a court system, a court system that gave birth to Jim Crow when it upheld Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896.

In 1939, as part of Mamie Clark’s research for her master’s degree at Howard University, the husband and wife team of Mamie and Kenneth Clark designed a study using dolls to test black children’s ego and self-esteem. In there study, they showed black and white dolls to children to test whether they would respond differently to dolls of different races by asking them which dolls were pretty and nice and which ones were bad. Not surprisingly, the white children included in the study overwhelmingly preferred the white dolls. The Clarks found that two thirds of the black children also preferred the white dolls saying that they were nice and pretty and the black dolls were bad and ugly. When the Clarks asked the black children which doll looked more like themselves, some chose the white dolls, some couldn’t answer and some just broke down in tears. The Clarkes’ concluded from their studies years of existing under the black codes through racial segregation and negative images had damaged many black children’s sense of identity and self esteem.

Thurgood Marshall wisely solicited the Clarks as expert witnesses in Briggs v. Elliott. To prepare for his expert testimony, Kenneth Clark traveled to Summerton, S.C. Using dolls of different colors, he tested the children of Scott’s Branch school to measure how they felt about themselves. He asked the children to show him the nice doll, the bad doll, and the doll that look just like you. Ten of the 16 children said that the brown doll looked bad. The results of these strongly suggested that forced segregation damaged the self-image of African American children in Clarendon County, S.C.

On May 28, 1951, Thurgood Marshall along with Robert Carter, and Spotswood Robinson brought the case before a three-judge panel at the Federal Court house in Charleston, S.C. The lawyers presented the Clarks study and argued that segregated schools harmed black children psychologically and violated the fourteenth Amendment guarantee of equal protection under the law. The three-judge panel of the U.S. District Court found that the schools designated for African Americans were grossly inadequate in terms of buildings transportation and teachers’ salaries when compared to schools provided for whites.

However, two of the judges citing Plessy v. Ferguson held that Separate but equal facilities were constitutional and ruled against the plaintiffs.

The dissenting judge Julius Waring adamantly opposed segregation in public schools. In his dissent he wrote: I am of the opinion that all of the legal guide posts, expert testimony, common sense, and reason points unerringly to the conclusion that the system of segregation in education adopted and practiced in the state of South Carolina must go and go now. Segregation is per se inequality.

Harry Briggs fight against Jim Crow was far from over. Thurgood Marshall and his legal team filed an appeal with the U.S. States Supreme Court.

I’m Julianne Malveaux, President of Bennet College. Joins us tomorrow as we continue to explore standing the shoulders of unsung heroes.

For Spanish and hearing impaired versions, please go to the Febone1960.net Black History Month Calendar

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    Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 3:08 pm. Add a comment

    A Showdown With Jim Crow: The Beginning Of The End Of The Jim Crow Era

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    After WWII Charles Houston sued to integrate the armed forces and the defense industry. Houston finally won. In 1948, President Harry Truman ordered the integration of the armed forces. One year prior to Truman’s order, Jackie Robinson integrated major league baseball. Thurgood Marshall and his NAACP legal team continued the challenge the unequal facilities in higher education by taking on the Sweat, Sipuel, and McLaurin cases.

    Sweat was a black mailman who wanted to attend law school in Texas.

    After the Sipuel case, Marshall’s next challenge would be the public, primary and secondary schools. At the request of an African Methodist Episcopal minister by the name of Joseph Delaine, Thurgood Marshall would take his very first case in Jim Crow’s backyard.

    Reverend J.A. Delaine was a second cousin by marriage to Carey Bailey Delaine, Curtis’ sister. Reverend Delaine was a primary school teacher in Clarendon county S.C. The issue for Reverend Delaine and the African American community in Clarendon County was bus transportation to school. African American children in Clarendon County did not have buses and they had to walk as far as eight miles each way to school. Reverend Delaine approached the Clarendon County school officials but failed to secure a school bus. School official justified the refusal by claiming that African American did not pay collectively much in taxes and it would be unfair to expect white citizens to provide transportation for the African American school children.

    Reverend Delaine initiated a letter writing campaign to no avail. Finally, the African American parents collected donations within their community and purchased a second hand school bus. Continuous repairs to the school bus proved to be economically unfeasible. Reverend Delaine then sought relief from the District’s superintendent who was also a minister. The District’s superintendent refused to even consider Reverend Delaine’s request.

    Reverend Delaine had attended a speech given by Reverend James Hinton, the president of the South Carolina NAACP. In that speech, the NAACP leader issued a challenge to find the illegality of the discriminatory practices aimed at African American School children. Reverend Delaine knew that if he wanted to secure school buses for the African American within Clarendon County, he would have to accept this challenge.

    Reverend Delaine embraced the challenge by encouraging Levi Pearson to file suit in U.S. District Court. On March 16, 1948 local Attorney Harold Boulware together with Thurgood Marshall filed in U.S. District Court the case of Levi Pearson v. The Board of Education.

    Will Bouleware and Marshall prevail?

    I’m Alice Gresham Bullock, former Dean of Howard University’s School Of Law . Join us tomorrow for the answer.

    For Spanish and hearing impaired versions, please go to the Febone1960.net Black History Month Calendar

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    Después de WWII Charles Houston demandó para integrar las fuerzas armadas y la industria de defensa. Houston finalmente ganó. En 1948, el Presidente Harry Truman pidió la integración de las fuerzas armadas. Un año antes de la orden de Truman, Jackie Robinson integró el béisbol de liga principal. El Thurgood Marshall y su equipo legal NAACP siguió el desafío las instalaciones desiguales en la enseñanza superior tomando Sweat, Sipuel, y casos McLaurin.

    Sweat era un cartero negro que quiso registrarse en la escuela de la ley en Texas.

    Para encontrar las obligaciones conforme a la doctrina separada pero igual, Texas construyó una escuela de ley para un individuo – Sweat.

    La Corte Suprema de Los Estados Unidos creyó que el desmentido de Sweat a la escuela de Ley era un desmentido de sus derechos de protección iguales.

    La Corte Suprema de Los Estados Unidos declaró que una escuela de ley es más que sólo un edificio. Una escuela de ley es una combinación de muchos factores como los profesores, y graduados.

    Unos años más tarde, Sr. McLaurin quiso asistir a la escuela de graduado en Oklahoma. Él fue admitido pero él no podía sentarse en el aula con los estudiantes blancos durante clases.

    La Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos encontró la segregación refrán inconstitucional que una vez que un estudiante es admitido usted no puede segregar a aquel estudiante dentro de la institución.

    Después del caso Sipuel, el siguiente desafío de Marshall sería el público, escuelas primarias y secundarias. A petición de un Metodista africano ministro Episcopal por el nombre de Joseph Delaine, Thurgood Marshall tomaría su primero caso en la yarda de Jim Crow.

    J.A reverendo. Delaine era un primo segundo por el matrimonio a Carey Bailey Delaine, la hermana de Curtis. Delaine Reverendo era un profesor de escuela primaria en el condado de Clarendon S.C. La cuestión para Delaine Reverendo y la comunidad americana africana en Clarendon County era el transporte de autobús a la escuela. Los niños americanos africanos en Clarendon County no tenían autobuses y ellos tuvieron que andar ocho millas a la escuela. Delaine Reverendo se acercó a los funcionarios de escuela de Clarendon County pero él era incapaz de conseguir un autobús escolar. El funcionario escolar justificó la respuesta negativa afirmando que el americano africano no pagó colectivamente mucho en impuestos y sería injusto esperar que ciudadanos blancos proporcionaran el transporte para los alumnos americanos africanos.

    Delaine reverendo inició una campaña de correspondencia en vano. Finalmente, los padres americanos africanos coleccionaron donaciones dentro de la comunidad Negra y compraron un viejo autobús escolar. Las reparaciones constantes al autobús escolar resultaron ser económicamente impracticables. Delaine reverendo pidió la ayuda del superintendente del Distrito que era también un ministro. El superintendente del Distrito no consideraría la petición de Delaine Reverendo.

    Delaine reverendo había asistido a un discurso dado por James Hinton Reverendo, el presidente de la Carolina del Sur NAACP. En aquel discurso, el líder NAACP dio un desafío para encontrar la ilegalidad de las prácticas discriminatorias sufrida por Alumnos americanos africanos. Delaine reverendo sabía que si él quisiera asegurar autobuses escolares para el americano africano dentro de Clarendon County, él tendría que aceptar este desafío.

    Delaine reverendo abrazó el desafío pidiendo a Levi Pearson presentar la demanda en el Tribunal de Distrito de Estados Unidos. El 16 de marzo de 1948 el Abogado local Harold Boulware juntos con Marshall Thurgood archivado en el Distrito estadounidense Corteja al caso de Levi Pearson v. El Bordo de Educación.

    ¿Bouleware y Marshall, prevalecerán ellos?

    Soy Penny Marshall. Venga mañana para la respuesta.

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      Posted 4 years, 8 months ago at 8:52 am. Add a comment